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DbSchema | How to Create Indexes in SQLite?

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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Prerequisites
  3. What is an Index?
  4. The Usage of Indexes
  5. Advantages and Limitations of Using an Index
  6. Types of Index
  7. Creating an Index in sqlite3
  8. Creating an Index in DbSchema
  9. Conclusion
  10. References


In any __relational database, managing and organizing data effectively is key to maintaining good performance. __Indexes play an integral role in this aspect by improving __data retrieval speed. This article will provide an in-depth understanding of how to create indexes in SQLite using __sqlite3 and __DbSchema`.


  • Basic understanding of __SQL and __relational databases
  • __SQLite3` installed on your local system
  • __DbSchema` installed on your local system

For installation and establishing connection you can read our article SQLite-How to create a database?

What is an Index?

An __index is a data structure that improves the __speed of data retrieval operations on a database table. It works similarly to an __index in a book, providing a quick way to access the __content without going through each page. The index in databases does this by creating a __data structure that can be quickly traversed to find the __location of a data record.

Structure of Index alt >

The Usage of Indexes

Indexes are mainly used to __speed up the retrieval of data from the database. They are __exceptionally efficient in situations where there is a large amount of data, and you need to __perform` queries to retrieve data based on some conditions.

Advantages and Limitations of Using an Index


  1. Improved Query Speed: Indexes significantly __enhance` the speed of data retrieval operations in a database.
  2. Efficient Data Sorting: They __aid in returning __sorted data faster.
  3. Rapid Record Management: Indexes __enhance the speed of operations such as __insert, __update, and __delete with __WHERE clauses`.


  1. Space Requirement: Indexes require __additional` space on the disk.
  2. Impact on Insertion, Deletion, and Update Operations: Since indexes require __continuous maintenance, insert, update, and delete operations become __slower.

Types of Index

Index Type Description
__Unique Index` This type of index ensures that all the values in the index are unique.
__Composite Index` This is an index on two or more columns of a table.
__Implicit Index` SQLite automatically creates an implicit index when we create a UNIQUE constraint or a PRIMARY KEY constraint.

Creating an Index in sqlite3

Step 1: Open SQLite3

Start by opening your SQLite3 console. You can do this by typing __sqlite3` in your terminal or command prompt.


Step 2: Connect to Your Database

Connect to your database using the __.open` command followed by the database name. If the database doesn’t exist, SQLite3 will create it. Here is an example:

.open sampleDB.db

To know more about creating a database you can read our article SQLite-How to create a database?

Step 3: Create or Connect to Your Table

If you’re starting a new database, you’ll need to __create a table`. If you’re connecting to an existing database, you can skip this step.

Here is an example of how to create a table:

CREATE TABLE students(  

To know more about creating a table you can read our article SQLite-How to create a Table?

Step 4: Create a Non-Unique Index:

Now you can create a __non-unique index using the __CREATE INDEX SQL command. This will create an index on the __name` column:

CREATE INDEX idx_student_name ON Students (name);

Here, __idx_student_name` is the index name.

Step 5: Create a Unique Index:

If you wish to create a unique index that ensures all values in the index are __unique, use the __CREATE UNIQUE INDEX command:

 CREATE UNIQUE INDEX idx_student_id ON Students (id);

Here, __idx_student_id` is the unique index name.

Step 6: Check Index:

Finally, you can check whether your __index has been created correctly using the __.indices command followed by the table name:

sqlite> .indices Students

Creating an Index in DbSchema

Step 1: Launch DbSchema

Start the DbSchema software. You will be greeted with the __Connect to Database` window.

Step 2:Create a New Connection

Click on the __Create New Connection` button. A new window will pop up.

Step 3:Set Connection Details

In this new window, choose the DBMS as SQLite, provide the necessary information such as the database file (or choose to create a new one), and click on the __Test Connection button to ensure the settings are correct. Once verified, click on the __Connect button.

Step 4:Select Table

In the main DbSchema window, you will see your database’s schema. Right-click on the table where you want to create an index, and select __Open in Layout`. This will open a new window with the table schema.

Step 5:Navigate to the Indexes Tab

In this window, you’ll see a tab named __Indexes / Foreign Keys`. Click on this tab to see the current indexes and create new ones.

Step 6:Create a New Index

Click on the __New Index` button, and a new window will pop up. In this window, provide the index name, select the index type (Unique or Not Unique), and add the required columns to the index.

Step 7:Save the Index

Once you have provided the necessary information, click on the __Save button. This will create the index, and you will see it in the __Indexes / Foreign Keys tab.

Step 8:Apply Changes

To make sure the changes are applied to the actual database, go to the main DbSchema window and click on the __Refresh` button.

Visually Manage SQLite using DbSchema

DbSchema is a __SQLite client and __visual designer. DbSchema has a free Community Edition, which can be downloaded here.

Key Features of DbSchema:

Following are the key features of DbSchema which distinguish it from other database GUI tools.


Indexes play an integral role in enhancing the speed of __data retrieval in databases. This __article provided an in-depth understanding of what indexes are, their types, and how to create them in SQLite using __sqlite3 and __DbSchema. Despite the benefits, remember that indexes come with their limitations. Careful thought should be put into when and where to use them.


  1. SQLite Create Index
  2. DbSchema Documentation
  3. What is Database Indexing?

Visually Manage Databases using DbSchema

DbSchema is a databases client and visual designer. DbSchema has a free Community Edition, which can be downloaded here.
DbSchema main features include:

DbSchema Designer alt >

Interactive Diagrams

Design tables, column and foreign keys directly in diagrams, by double-clicking them. Changes will be saved to the design model and, if DbSchema is connected to the database also into the database. More.

Connection Dialog alt >

Simple Connection Dialog

Choose the database location, the user and password, and simply get connected. Choose 'Edit Manually' into the JDBC URL combo to enter a custom URL. More.

Relational Data Explorer alt >

Relational Data Explorer

Explore data from multiple tables simultaneously, using foreign keys or virtual foreign keys. Double-click cells to edit the data. More.

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Query Builder

Create SQL Queries featuring JOINS, GROUP BY, ORDER BY just using the mouse. More.

SQL Query Editor alt >

SQL Query Editor

Edit and execute SQL Queries. The editor is autocompletion-enabled. More.

Schema Synchronization alt >

Design Schema in Team & Schema Deployment

DbSchema is using the design model, a copy of the schema structure, independent of the database.
The design model can be saved to file and shared in a team.
Connecting to another database you may compare the design model with the database, commit the differences or merge them in the design model. More.

Dark Theme alt >

Dark Theme

Configurable styles & dark theme. More.

Many features are available in the free Community edition.
The Pro edition adds capabilities to save the design to the model file, design schema in team and deploy the schema on multiple databases.

DbSchema can be downloaded for free. No registration is required.